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IMPLEMENTASI MANAJEMEN PELATIHAN YANG DITERAPKAN FASILITATOR PNPM MANDIRI PERKOTAAN KEPADA KELOMPOK SWADAYA MASYARAKAT

Oleh Dr. Ach. Rasyad , M.Pd   

Tujuan  penelitian ini untuk menjelaskan: (1)  peran fasilitator dalam proses implementasi pelatihan pemberdayaan masyarakat melalui PNPM Mandiri Perkotaan, (2) proses perencanaan pelatihan yang diterapkan fasilitator PNPM Mandiri Perkotaan bagi Kelompok Swadaya Masyarakat, (3) proses pelaksanaan pelatihan yang diterapkan fasilitator PNPM Mandiri Perkotaan bagi Kelompok Swadaya Masyarakat, (4) proses evaluasi pelatihan yang diterapkan fasilitator PNPM Mandiri Perkotaan bagi Kelompok Swadaya Masyarakat. Penelitian menggunakan pendekatan kualitatif dengan  rancangan studi kasus. Lokasi penelitian dilaksanakan di Kecamatan Kepanjen Kabupaten Malang. Informan utama dalam penelitian adalah  fasilitator kelurahan (faskel) dan informan pendukung adalah pengurus Badan Keswadayaan Masyarakat, anggota Kelompok swadaya  mayarakat, dan perangkat kelurahan/desa. Proses pengumpulan data  menggunakan wawancara mendalam, FGD, observasi, dan dokumentasi. Teknik analisis data dilakukan  sebelum turun ke lapangan dan selama di lapangan dengan menggunakan  interactive analysis models  menurut  Miles & Huberman. 

Berdasarkan hasil analisis data, diperoleh  hasil temuan berikut: (1) peran fasilitator dalam PNPM Mandiri Perkotaan memiliki berperan ganda. Artinya, peran seorang fasilitator dituntut tidak sekedar memfasilitasi kebutuhan belajar masyarakat, namun harus bisa berperan sebagai narasumber, berperan sebagai guru, dan berperan sebagai mediator di berbagai kepentingan masyarakat; (2) perencanaan yang baik akan membawa efek yang signifikan pada pelaksanaan pelatihan. Sebaliknya, jika perencanan pelatihan mengabaikan/tidak memenuhi beberapa tahapan, maka akan membawa potensi kegagalan selama proses pelatihan berlangsung; (3) pelaksanaan pelatihan (siklus dan non-siklus) yang dilakukan oleh fasilitator di PNPM Mandiri Perkotaan di Kecamatan kepanjen, tidak hanya sekedar menyampaikan materi kepada sasaran, tetapi dilaksanakan secara partisipatif dengan menerapkan teknik memfasilitasi yang komunikatif kepada peserta pelatihan; (4)  setiap program pelatihan dilakukan evaluasi oleh pihak-pihak terkait, termasuk juga oleh fasilitator. Kegiatan evaluasi dalam PNPM Mandiri dikelompokkan menjadi dua bagian, yaitu evaluasi seluruh tahapan pelatihan yang sudah dilaksanakan dan evaluasi tiap penyelenggaraan pelatihan yang sudah dilaksanakan.

Kesimpulan  penelitian:  (1) Peran fasilitator dituntut tidak sekedar memfasilitasi kebutuhan belajar masyarakat, namun harus bisa berperan sebagai narasumber, berperan sebagai guru, dan berperan sebagai mediator di berbagai kepentingan masyarakat. (2) Perencanaan yang baik akan membawa efek yang signifikan pada pelaksanaan pelatihan. (3) Pelaksanaan pelatihan yang dilakukan oleh fasilitator tidak hanya sekedar menyampaikan materi kepada sasaran, tetapi dilaksanakan secara partisipatif dengan menerapkan teknik memfasilitasi yang komunikatif kepada peserta pelatihan. (4)  Setiap program pelatihan dilakukan evaluasi oleh pihak-pihak terkait, termasuk juga oleh fasilitator. 

Saran-saran penelitian: (1) untuk mendapatkan fasilitator yang berkualitas perlu diseleksi calon fasilitator yang memiliki pengalaman pemberdayaan dan memiliki linearitas program studi yang relevan dengan kebutuhan di lapangan; (2) perlu merencanakan persiapan pelatihan dengan baik dari sisi pemilihan tempat pelatihan, keterjangkauan lokasi pelatihan dengan tempat tinggal peserta, penggunaan media dan bahan pembelajaran yang memenuhi standard;  (3) perlunya pemahaman yang benar bahwa pelaksanaan pelatihan kepada masyarakat bukan sekedar menggugurkan kewajiban untuk menuntaskan proyek saja; (4) perlunya pendalaman lebih lanjut untuk menggali informasi yang lebih mendalam dengan menindaklanjuti hasil penelitian ini agar dikembangkan lagi.

 ABSTRACT

 Rasyad, A. 2014.  Implementation of Management Training Applied to the Facilitator  of PNPM Mandiri Perkotaan for Community Self-help Groups.

 Keywords: management training, facilitator, PNPM Mandiri Perkotaan, community self-helpgroups.

The high rate of poverty and unemployment in Indonesia need serious attention from the central government and regions government. To solve these problems one of the national program are participative PNPM Mandiri is through. To answer these problems, PNPM Mandiri Perkotaan strives to organise various training to community self-help groups. However, the number of training being held, apparently still not bring a significant impact on the target audience. Therefore, to address the problem of organizing the training needed the implementation of training management and optimization of returns as well as public participation supporting other elements. 

The purpose of this research was to clarify: (1) the role of facilitators in the process of implementation of community empowerment through training PNPM Mandiri Perkotaan, (2) the process of planning a training facilitator PNPM Mandiri Perkotaan applied for community self-help group, (3) the process of the implementation of the applied training facilitator PNPM Mandiri Perkotaan for community self-help group, (4) the process of evaluation of the applied training facilitator PNPM Mandiri perkotaan for community self-help group.

Research using qualitative approach with case studies. Location of research carried out in Kepanjen Kabupaten Malang. The main informant in research is the facilitator and Agency Administrators are supporting informant self-help communities, communities, self-help group members and other neighborhood/village. The process of data collection using in-depth interviews, FGD, observation, and documentation. Technique of data analysis is done before going down to the field and during his time in the field by using the interactive analysis models according to Miles & Huberman.

Based on the results of data analysis, obtained the following results: (1) the role of facilitator in the PNPM Mandiri Perkotaan has played doubles. That is, the role of a facilitator is required not only to facilitate the needs of the learning community, however, must be able to act as the resource person, acts as a teacher, and served as a mediator in the various interests of  the community; (2) good planning will bring a significant effect on the implementation of the training. Conversely, if the training planning ignores/doesn't meet several stages, it will bring the potential failures during the process of training takes place; (3) implementation of training conducted by the facilitators at the PNPM Mandiri Perkotaan in Kepanjen, not just deliver the material to the target, but implemented in a participatory by applying the technique to facilitate communicative to the trainee;  (4) any training programs be evaluated by the parties concerned, as well as by the facilitators. Evaluation activities within the PNPM Mandiri is grouped into two parts, namely the evaluation of all stages of the training which has been carried out and an evaluation of each training event that is already implemented.

Research conclusions: (1) The role of the facilitator is required not only to facilitate the needs of the learning community, however, must be able to act as the resource person, acts as a teacher, and served as a mediator in various community interests. (2) Good planning will bring a significant effect on the implementation of the  training. (3) The implementation of training conducted by the facilitator does not merely deliver material to a target, but implemented in a participatory by applying the technique to facilitate communicative to the trainee. (4) Any training programs be evaluated by the parties concerned, as well as by the 4 facilitators. Research suggestions: (1) to get a qualified facilitator needs to selected candidates who has experience of the facilitator empowerment and have the relevant course linearity with the needs on the ground; (2) the need to plan the preparation of training with both in the selection of venue location, affordability of training with all participants, use of media and learning materials that meet the standard; (3) the need for a true understanding that implementation of the training to the community not just dismissed the obligations to complete the project; (4) the need for further study to dig deeper with information to follow up on the results of this research to be developed more.

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